Understanding Basics

Providing Knowledge

  • Satisfactory Moral Theory

    According to Rachel, the first element of a satisfactory moral theory is a truthful acceptance of human beings’ very recent appearance on the planet, thus ending the vain idea of the universe made for man’s benefit. According to Hume, though we are superior in certain ways as we devised “morality based on reason” but reason […]

  • Virtue Ethics

    According to Aristotle, ethics depended on the virtues of a man. Ethical Egoism, Utilitarianism, ethics of right action, Kant’s theory and the Social Contract theory dominated the moral philosophy from seventeenth century onwards, but certain modern philosophers demanded return to Aristotelian ideas, specially Elizabeth and Anscombe who criticized the incoherent notion of “law without a […]

  • Feminism and the Ethics of Care

    Kohllberg put forth problems and scenarios to study the moral development of kids, and “Heinz dilemma” is the most popular, posing the question that should Heinz steal from the dishonest druggist to save his dying wife? Heinz evolved six stages of moral maturity, from avoiding punishments to making fair deals to the understanding of one’s […]

  • Respect for Persons

    Kant considered person to be quite “fabulous”, different, better and more valuable than the rest of the creation because he possessed an intrinsic worth and his moral laws suggest that person should not be used as “means to an end”. He believed that man being rational and intelligent being has ambitions and desires so things including non-human […]

  • Are There Absolute Moral Rules

    Kent believed that moral values are absolute and lying is always wrong, not because of theological considerations but because reason demands it. He believed morals are categorical. Hypothetical Imperatives are simple because they cater our desires. We can renounce the force of the hypothetical imperative by simply renouncing our desire. On the other hand moral […]

  • Debate over Utilitarianism

    The consequence of happiness is the fundamental part of the utilitarianism. The criteria of right, is the result, but there are other arguments regarding other considerations apart from utility. Some people  think that utilitarianism is at odds with justice and rights. Justice requires “fair treatment of people according to their individual needs and merits”. So […]

  • Utilitarian Approach

    In a changing world, the idea of ethics and morality also revolutionized. Benthum believed in the “principle of utility”, the idea of greater good where everyone enjoys the fruit of happiness. Benthum and Mill lead a revolutionary idea as it subtracted God from morality and only included the promotion of human happiness. The distinct ideas […]

  • Social Contract

    Thomas Hobbs believes that morality does not depend up on the idea of God or the religious precept of reward and punishment. Furthermore he denies that human beings are essentially good and altruistic. For him morality is “the solution to a practical problem that arises for self-interested human beings”. As social animals we desire peaceful […]

  • Ethical Egoism

    Psychological egoism can be defined as a doctrine in which each individual’s actions can be interpreted as done in self interest or it can also be interpreted as selfishness, thus stressing on what is instead of what ought to be hence making it like a expressive oversimplification like a study of social science. Now the […]

  • Morality and Religion

    Rachel in this chapter concentrates on the most dominant concern relating to the discussion regarding morality and religion. Most of the American way of thinking and opinions about ethics and morality is derived from the clergy teachings. The Divine Command Theory states that good is only what is commanded by God, this has a unique […]