Management Theory: Essential Background for the Successful Manager
Management theory is applied to rise the organization’s output
Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got to Today’s Management Outlook
A rational approach followed in management styles is evidence-based management meaning implementing the principles which were proven true basing on evidence and bringing reasons in decision-making process. The two main perspectives in management are historic perspective and the contemporary perspective. In historic perspective there are three viewpoints including classical, behavioral and quantitative. In the contemporary perspective there are also three viewpoints including systems, contingency and quality management. The study of these perspective give us an understanding of present, a direction, source of new ideas, clues to the meaning of management decisions and outside ideas.
Classical Viewpoint: Scientific & Administrative Management
The classical viewpoint was the first historical perspective which focused in discovering new methods for efficiently and effectively managing work. It has two branches scientific management and administrative management. Scientific management was developed by Frederick W. Taylor which focused on study of methods to constantly improve productivity of workforce. While Administrative management, had a larger area of operation, which focused on managing whole organization. Henri Fayol who was among the developer of the theory identified the four functions of managers which were planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The critics to this theory were concerned that this theory lacked human factor.
Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
The second development in the historical perspective led to behavioral viewpoint which focused on the human factor and gave importance to ways to motivate the workforce in achieving organizational goals. Its development consisted of three phases that is early behaviorism, the human relations movement and the behavioral science approach. Early behaviorism suggested that psychologists should be involved in the study of individuals in a work environment, it also suggested that organizations should follow democratic approach and it also introduced the Hawthorne effect which described that employees worked hard when manager pay proper appreciation to employees on their performance.
Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science & Operations Research
Quantitative viewpoints is the third of the historical perspective. It stresses the need for managers to follow quantitative techniques by pursuing two main approaches that is management science and operation management. Management science requires managers to use mathematics in problem solving and decision making processes while operation management focuses on the production and delivery solutions of organization’s products and services to the customer effectively.
System viewpoint is the part of contemporary perspective which requires the organization to be viewed as a collection of systems and subsystems operating in coordination with each other for achieving the organizational objectives. A system consists of four parts that is inputs, outputs, transformational processes and feedback. A system is functional in two types open system and closed system having interaction with the environment or having no interaction with environment respectively.
Contingency viewpoint is the part of contemporary perspective which requires the manager to pursue a approach according to the individual and the situation in which he is.
Quality-Management Viewpoint is a part of contemporary theory which focuses on the quality of a product or service being delivered to the customer. It has three characteristics, quality control, quality assurance and total quality management (TQM). TQM requires the organization to continuously improve, get all the employee involved, listen to and learns from customers and employees and in the last use accurate standards to identify and solve issues.
The Learning Organization in an Era of Accelerated Change
A learning organization is the one which creates, acquires and shares knowledge inside the organization. In this fast paced work environment organizations need to account for the latest technology changes and the current needs like virtual organizations, global dimensions, speed and innovation, knowledge workers, understanding the potential of human capital and social capital. In order to make an organization a learning organization the managers are required to adopt three roles which are making a commitment to learning, working to generate ideas with impact and generalizing ideas with impact.