The Community of Stakeholders Inside the Organization
The managers have a responsibility to manage the company both internally and externally and operating in the best interest of the stakeholders. There are two kinds of stakeholders internal and external. The internal stakeholders include employees, owners and board of directors.
The Community of Stakeholders Outside the Organization
The external operating environment for a manager includes two types of environment which are task environment and general environment. The task environment consists of eleven day to day tasks including customers or clients, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, labor unions or employee associations, local communities, financial institutions, government institutions, special interest groups and mass media affecting organization’s public relations. The general environment consist of six forces including economic forces like general economic conditions, inflations, interest rates and unemployment; technological; socio-cultural forces; demographic forces; political and legal forces and international forces that may affect the organization.
The Ethical Responsibilities Required of You as a Manager
Ethics can be explained as standards for appropriate behavior which is to be followed and it distinguishes between right and wrong behavior. Ethical dilemmas often take place due to the organization’s value system. There are four approaches in deciding the ethical dilemma which are utilitarian, individual, moral-rights and justice. In 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed to secure the rights of public against the white collar crimes like Enron, Tyco and WorldCom which required companies to maintain proper financial records. Laurence Kholberg introduced three personal moral development levels including preconvientional, conventional, postconventional. In order to establish ethical standards in the organization the top managers must back the standards, code of ethics must be in written for and appreciation must be shown for ethical behavior.
The Social Responsibilities Required of You as a Manager
The social responsibility of the manager is to take care of interests of society other than providing benefit to organization. The idea of social responsibility has opposing and supporting viewpoints. The opposing viewpoint say that the social responsibility of the business is to earn profits while the supporting viewpoints goes by the idea that as businesses utilize nature resources and brings disturbance like pollution then it should also try to solve the problems created by its presence. Archie Carroll introduced the idea that an organization should act like a good corporate citizen, be ethical in its conduct, obey laws and earn profit. Positive ethical behavior and fulfilling social responsibility earns goodwill of the organization which in return can reward by loyal customers and employees and higher profits.
The New Diversified Workforce
In this new era all the organization have workforce with diversified background. There are two dimensions of diversity. Internal dimension of diversity take into account the differences on the basis of gender, ethnicity, race, physical abilities, age and sexual orientation. External dimension of diversity takes into account the differences on the basis of characteristics, personal habits, educational background, religion, wealth, marital status, likes and dislikes. In United States the dimensions of diversity are divided in six categories which are age, sex, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, disabilities and educational level. There is always some resistance to diversity shown by managers or employees like having prejudice due to ethnocentrism, reverse discrimination, a distraction from supposedly real objective, unsupportive social atmosphere by other employees or even by organization.