Power, Influence, & Leadership: From Becoming a Manager to Becoming a Leader
The Nature of Leadership: Wielding Influence
A leader is a person who inspires his followers in such manner that they voluntarily strive to make the organizational goals possible. There is a huge difference between managers and leaders. A management position has to deal with complexities however a leader discovers change. In an organization a leader possesses five powers which are legitimate power, reward power, coercive power, expert power and referent power and a manager only has three of the leader’s power which are legitimate power, reward power and coercive power. There are nine possible influence tactics which can be used to influence other and these tactics are rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, ingratiating tactics, personal appeals, exchange tactics, coalition tactics, pressure tactics, and legitimating tactics. There are four perspective of leadership which include trait, behavioral, contingency and emerging.
Trait Approaches: Do Leaders Have Distinctive Personality Characteristics?
The trait approach describes different characteristics of leadership. Kouzes and Posner approach described five traits necessary for leadership including honesty, competency, forward looking, inspiring and intelligence. In gender studies approach women are thought to be better leaders having abilities like higher efficiency, better goal setters, mentors, better team players, partners, collaborators, self motivated, stable and less turf conscious. The Project Globe study showed that the managers who were visionary, inspiring and charismatic turned out to be good team building.
Behavioral Approaches: Do Leaders Show Distinctive Patterns of Behavior?
The behavioral approach describes distinctive styles adopted by effective leaders. The styles of leaders include personal traits, skills and behaviors which they use while interacting with employees, customers and with other organizations. The Michigan research describes two styles including job centered behavior and employee centered behavior. The Ohio State leadership model describes two dimensions of leadership behaviors including initiating structure and consideration. After using these two studies another expert described that the best behavior would be a mixture of these two studies.
Contingency Approaches: Does Leadership Vary with the Situation?
The contingency approach describes that the behavior should be molded according to the situation. There are three main approaches. In Fielder contingency leadership model states that there are two styles a leader can pursue which are task oriented or relationship oriented and he should follow the one which is best suitable. The situation control has three dimensions which include leader-member relationship, the task structure and position power. The house path-goal leadership model suggest that the leader has to be a facilitator and helpful for them achieving their targets and also helping them to achieve organizational goals. House expanded his behavior characteristics to eight which were four earlier before considering the two variables of employee characteristics and environmental factors. In Hersay’s situational leadership theory it was suggested that the leader should be vigilant and act according to the follower’s best suitable style from the styles of telling, selling, participating and delegating.
The Full-Range Model: Uses of Transactional & Transformational Leadership
In full range model the leader selects among from a range of styles. The most effectual style would be transactional/ transformational. The transactional style pursues the leader to clarify the tasks and goals assigned to employee. The transformational style pursues the leader to follow a style in which he motivates the employees and followers to keep the organizational goals in priority; this style is affected by leader’s personality and organizational culture. The leaders who have achieved recognition have pursued both transactional and transformational styles. The transformational style has four key behaviors which are inspire motivation, inspire trust, encourage excellence and stimulate followers intellectually. The transformational style has the following three implications including improvement of results for individuals and group; training the employees and using this ethically and unethically.
Four Additional Perspectives
There are four additional perspective including leader-membership exchange model, shared leadership, and e-leadership. The leader-membership exchange model describes that a leader should differentiate his styles according to the nature of his employees. Shared leadership model describes that people should be sharing the responsibilities of leadership and be ready to work as a team. The servant leadership model describes that a leader should be able to align the goals of individuals with the goals of organization and facilitate the employees in their tasks. The e-leadership describes that the leader should be able to communicate with his followers, clients and customers through the modern technology.